Tips for IECs Guiding College Transfer Applicants

Not all students start at university and graduate four years later from their initial university. Some students start at community college with a plan to transfer to a four-year university in an effort to save money, have smaller, more supportive foundational courses, and/or explore different courses prior to settling on a major. Others enroll at a four-year university but determine that the school is not the best fit for them after all. With a global pandemic causing financial hardships and making college visits more difficult, independent educational consultants (IECs) may find themselves guiding more transfer applicants to four-year universities.

Below are tips for IECs helping student applicants manage this transition.

College Grades Matter Most

Whether students are enrolled in a community college or another four-year university, students should know that admissions officers will be focusing primarily on the college courses taken and grades earned. Some universities may have specific unit or course requirements for transfer students, such as having completed a minimum number of units or core courses in a breadth of subjects. Determining transfer eligibility will require careful research of each potential university. 

To a lesser extent, admissions officers will be looking at engagement in clubs and activities while at college. Strong transfer applicants will have made the most of their time at their initial institution. Extracurricular activities from high school or a gap year may be considered if the student has spent less than two years at the initial college. 

The Major

Most transfer applicants will need to apply to a specific major. Unlike first-year applicants, transfer applicants generally cannot apply as an Undeclared or Undecided major as the university that the student is applying to wants to know that the applicant will be able to complete their degree within two to three years of transferring.  

Appropriate preparation for transfer may include the completion of prerequisite courses for the major, especially when applying to competitive or impacted fields. Ask students to acquire and save syllabi from their classes whenever possible, as some schools and major departments may use these to evaluate course equivalencies.  

Articulation Agreements and Transfer Guarantees

Some community colleges have transfer admission guarantee programs with universities, but applicants must meet very specific requirements, and students may need to start with a detailed plan when they initially enroll at community college in order to take required courses (especially important for STEM majors for which successive courses require prerequisites). In some cases, these guarantees may require completion of an associate’s degree.  

If there is no specific guarantee or transfer pathway in place, or if the student is hoping to transfer between four-year schools, look for articulation agreements and course equivalency guides. Many universities post transfer courses that have previously been accepted for credit, or participate in a central database, such as Transferology 

Transfer Application Essays

The community college to four-year university application essay should focus on how the student has planned and prepared for transfer and may include details about extracurricular activities at the college or in the workforce. 

 The four-year university to four-year university transfer application essay should focus on the positive reasons for transferring, and what the student will do differently at the new university in order to be successful. It is best to avoid saying anything negative about the previous university (aside from it not being the best fit for the student). 

The Transfer Transition

Check to see if there are transfer coordinators, transfer support programs, and transfer housing at the schools being considered. All of these will help the student make the transition to a new university.  

Map out a path to graduation at potential universities. Some transfer students find that an additional semester or year is required to graduate in the desired major. It may be useful to check on maximum unit policies and fifth-year senior housing possibilities in some cases to ensure that the student will not just be able to gain admittance to a new university, but also graduate with a degree in a reasonable timeframe. 

Finally, check to see what financial aid may be available at the universities where you will be applying to transfer to. Applicants will need to submit the FAFSA in order to receive any need-based aid that they qualify for. Some, but not all, universities offer merit aid to transfer students. 

IECA members: Join the Transfer Students Affinity Group on the Member Network for more support and discussion on working with college students exploring undergraduate transfer opportunities. 

By Jaime Smith, MA, IECA Associate (OR) and Priscilla Vivio, MEd, IECA Associate (WA),  IECA Transfer Students Affinity Group Coordinators 

New Year, Fresh Start

While many of us have already made—and broken—resolutions for the New Year, I wanted to offer a few ideas for independent educational consultants (IECs) still exploring goals and direction for 2022.

1. Establish a personal care plan.

No one—not a parent, teacher, or an independent educational consultant—can take on the concerns, anxieties, and emotional baggage of clients without a plan to care for their own emotional well-being. Explore some of the many mindfulness apps, begin a walking routine, join a book club—whatever works for you. Choose something that will help you escape the work you do. If you get into the habit NOW, it will already be part of your normal routine when the next busy season arrives.

2. Remember the personal care needs of your employees as well.

As we close in on the two-year anniversary of COVID-19, let’s also remember that your accountant, client-services rep, tutors, and essays specialist are also dealing with demands of work and disruptions to family norms. Think about offering flexible scheduling, time for exercise, and responsiveness to COVID-related scheduling changes, and resolve to give your team space to thrive.

3. Consider how rough it has been for so many people.

In addition to health care workers, many others are bearing relentless attacks by those who seemingly blame them for things well outside of their control. This includes food servers, teachers, store clerks, and airline workers. Let’s resolve to show some grace and offer words of affirmation to those whose work has become unpleasant.

4. Take advantage of technology in ways that make your life and your clients’ lives easier.

Talk about a win-win! Consider online payment platforms, meeting schedulers, offering digital resources, and using a new social media platform—just a few examples of technology use that ought to be on your radar this year.

5. Uncover ways that you can be a better IEC to under-resourced and under-supported communities.

This could take the form of pro bono work or volunteering with a community-based organization. It can also mean looking at ways you could do a better job understanding and responding to the changing face of adolescents. As America’s teens become more diverse, resolve to take coursework, get certified, and become more knowledgeable about inclusion—whether the differences are based in race, religion, sexual identify, physical disabilities, or neurodiversity. Becoming an advocate for the under-served or marginalized makes you a stronger IEC in your own practice and in educating peers.

6. Finally, get involved in your professional IECA community.

Become a mentor, request a mentor, learn a new specialty, attend an IECA conference, present a session or lead a discussion at a conference, join Affinity Groups, and become active in your Regional Group. This is how we make the profession and the association stronger. Resolve to recommend membership to an unaffiliated IEC. Let’s strengthen our community, together.

By Mark Sklarow, IECA CEO

IECA Grants Annual Making a Difference Award to Seven Independent Educational Consultants

Honorees Have Gone Above and Beyond to Support Their Fellow Members During the Year

IECA has recognized seven independent educational consultants (IECs) across the US with its annual Making a Difference Awards in recognition of their selfless volunteer efforts that have made a difference in the work of the association’s 2,300 members during this year.

Award recipients include Christopher Bell of Boulder, CO; Cynthia Cohen of Denver, CO; Eric Dobler of Cheshire, CT; Deborah Davis Groves of Austin, TX; Sylvia Jackman of Lexington, SC; Stephanie Meade of Studio City, CA; and Luisa Rabe of Haverford, PA. . They were selected from the general membership and are not currently serving in formal leadership roles in IECA.

The efforts of these members have added significantly to the strengths and skills of their IECA member colleagues in their work with tens of thousands of students annually. The lifelong learning, collegiality, and ethical standards represented by the awardees are the hallmarks of IECA.

The Making a Difference Awards were presented by Kristina Dooley, IECA board president, during the organization’s Fall Conference (November 10-12, 2021), which was attended by more than 600 independent educational consultants and over 250 colleges, schools, and programs.

“Our seven awardees have gone above and beyond by fostering connections among IECA members and sharing resources, information, and ideas that have been invaluable to their IEC practices,” said IECA CEO Mark Sklarow. “Their efforts are a testament to the collegiality of IECA members.”

Christopher Bell
Cynthia Cohen
Eric Dobler
Deborah Davis Groves

Sylvia Jackman
Stephanie Meade
Luisa Rabe

A Legacy Obsolete

The families I advise are generally aware of legacy admission practices, but many are less informed regarding its origins and the degree of advantage that it affords them.

As an independent educational consultant who works directly with students who benefit from this policy, I can also vouch for the pressure, and even embarrassment, this adds to an already stressful process. Not unlike the Varsity Blues scandal, students are the ones caught in the crosshairs of outside influences and expectations that can infringe on and even deter the process of finding that perfect-fit college.  

Although increasing college access and diversity is a growing priority for colleges, I have found legacy admissions to be the proverbial elephant in the room. The contradictory policy of legacy status still appears to be considered sacrosanct by many postsecondary institutions. College admissions is subjective, and the institutional priorities that define who is admitted each year often place emphasis on varying qualities that are not associated with academic merit: athletics, ability to pay, etc. However, the notion that an advantage is granted to applicants based on historical ties to the college is completely unjust when considering our country’s painful history of denying postsecondary access to students based on race, gender, and religion. Many colleges have a page on their websites dedicated to a commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion, yet duplicitously maintain legacy status in the admissions process, giving a clear (non-merit-based) boost to more privileged populations. 

Dartmouth College is the notorious trailblazer of legacy admissions, first introducing the practice in 1922, with other colleges such as Yale following closely behind. The origins of using legacy in admissions are seeded in nativism and antisemitism, created to ensure that certain populations remained excluded. Selective colleges such as Harvard and Princeton have single digit admit rates for the general population, yet admit about a third of legacy status applicants. At Cornell University, legacy admits make up “around 15% of the student body,” almost five times that of the Black student population, or almost equal to that of the entire Black and Latino populations combined. Although colleges have confirmed that legacy admits are often academically qualified, competitive applicants, this practice has given additional privileges to an already affluent population, further compounding inequity in the admissions process and serving as a barrier to achieving higher rates of diversity at college campuses. Furthermore, those who promote the use of legacy admission say it guarantees loyal alumni giving; research shows there is no correlation.   

Amherst College is the most recent institution to end legacy admission preference, citing it as a policy “that inadvertently limits educational opportunity.” The College is also strengthening its financial aid programming in an effort to making an Amherst experience more affordable and accessible to all students. Amherst joins the ranks of colleges like MIT and the California Institute of Technology in creating a holistic approach to admission that does not factor in alumni connections.  

Although legacy status is just one aspect of a college admissions process already rife with advantages for the wealthy and privileged, eliminating it is one solid gesture that all colleges can take to “walk the walk” in their diversity, access, and inclusion efforts. I applaud Amherst College, and its predecessors, for having the courage to make bold changes to embrace a new legacy that embodies the visionary leadership our students and families deserve. Breaking with past practices is something we all must be willing to do to create meaningful change for the diverse populations of students that we are called to serve and advocate for as college access professionals. 

By Yvonne Espinoza, IECA (TX)

Yvonne Espinoza, Yvonne Espinoza College Counseling Services, can be reached at [email protected]

How to Navigate Vaccine and Mask Mandates with Your Students and Families

More than 18 months into the pandemic, COVID-19 continues to impact the landscape of college admissions and how life on campuses looks these days. With mask and vaccine mandates varying across the country—as well as the responses to them from prospective students and their families—many IECA members are looking for suggestions about how to guide parents and students through this tumultuous time. IECA Secretary/Treasurer Ibrahim Firat (TX) offers this perspective and advice.

Stay Informed about a College’s Mandates and its Political Climate

Our office is staying informed about college mandates/requirements by reaching out to current and past students (who are in college now) to hear what they are experiencing; reading the Chronicle of Higher Education’s up-to-date information about colleges’ vaccine mandates and other requirements; and staying in touch with admissions office contacts.

We rely on current/past student feedback, online forums, student-published media (newspaper, radio, podcast etc.), events on campus, and faculty-led research/publications to keep our pulse on the political climate of the college.

Provide Context for Vaccine Mandates

Just as size, location, academics, etc. are factors to decide where to go to college, so are rules/regulations/mandates. Vaccine mandates are not new, however; certain vaccines (i.e. meningitis) have been required by colleges for some time, so we start by reminding that this has been around. Secondly, we remind parents that their college-bound student is (or by the time they go off to college will be) 18+/adult and that it really is their decision to further pursue discussions with the school about mandates. Thirdly, colleges have been providing religious and/or health-related exemptions to mandates and that they can look into these options if necessary/applicable.

Continue to Guide Students and Families According to Best-Fit

There is a fine line between making this issue political and scientific versus completely college admissions or fit related. We do not get into the politics or the science of it as we are NOT the experts in those areas. We do get into the factors of selecting the right-fit college for the individual student/family’s values, and if certain school’s mandates are against those values, then it is simply an X rather than a checkmark next to that factor and we treat it as such. For some people, that X means everything; for some people that X is just another factor that may not fit them (i.e. size of campus/class size) and it may be okay.

College life on campus is shifting from all angles (i.e. living, dining, political climate, frats/sororities, etc.). How can we support families who are trying to find the best-fit college in this dynamic environment? It is a challenge, given that we still cannot visit most universities in person to gather updated info and get a feel for these “vibes.” But we must use the resources available to us to find the college that best matches the student’s educational, social, professional, and personal growth.

Ibrahim Firat, Firat Educational Solutions, LLC, can be reached at [email protected]

IECA Condemns Anti-Asian Violence

We at IECA are outraged, frustrated, and deeply saddened by recent hate crimes across the country targeting Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI).  We grieve for the eight lives lost in Atlanta this week—six of whom were women of Asian descent—as well as the many other victims of anti-Asian racism, oppression, and harassment. IECA condemns all forms of racism and is committed to working toward a fair, just, and equitable society.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have witnessed a disturbing increase in anti-Asian violence, discrimination, and harassment globally. The events in the news this week, and stories shared during hearings in Congress in recent days, are the latest in a series of tragic and painful experiences. We offer our support and empathy to our AAPI students, families, members, and affiliated professionals.

IECA is committed to helping families of all backgrounds have access to skilled and ethical academic or therapeutic guidance, regardless of race, ethnicity, economic status, or zip code. Our work to continue promoting equity, fairness, and anti-racism must be constant. Join us in learning more and standing against social injustice. Here are resources to help you take action today:

As leaders in education, we have an opportunity to model leadership that is focused on unity, support, and action. We must do our part to build a more informed, inclusive, and socially just society.

IECA Responds to Netflix Varsity Blues Docudrama and Anxiety Permeating the College Admissions Process

In response to the forthcoming Netflix docudrama “Operation Varsity Blues: The College Admissions Scandal,” IECA commends its members commitment to the highest standards in ethical college advising while calling for greater transparency in the college application process.

The Netflix film takes a deep dive into the 2019 college admissions scandal, dubbed “Operation Varsity Blues,” involving a criminal conspiracy to influence undergraduate admissions decisions at several prestigious American universities. The scandal led to more than 50 high-profile arrests, including actresses Lori Loughlin and Felicity Huffman. The conspiracy was arranged by William “Rick” Singer, who claimed to be an educational consultant and used millions of dollars from wealthy parents of college applicants to fraudulently inflate entrance exam test scores as well as bribe college coaches and administrators.

While the Varsity Blues scandal exposed the specific efforts of wealthy, privileged parents to ensure their children’s admission into the nation’s top colleges, it brought to light broader problems in the college application process:

  • Access to college advising in high school is unequal across the country, and particularly strained in urban and rural public high schools, where the average student-to-counselor ratio is 455:1 and more than 700:1 in some areas. This leaves school counselors overburdened and students under-resourced.
  • Colleges have become increasingly opaque in their admission criteria.
  • College acceptance rates continue to decline, partly due to the increase in applications, leading to heightened anxiety levels among students and parents.
  • Sophisticated modeling means computers play an outsize role in college admissions, minimizing the personal stories of students and admission counselors.

How IECA Members Help Students and Families Navigate College Admissions

Since its founding in 1976, IECA has been the leading voice in putting students first in the college admissions journey. IECA and its members work to assure families understand the drivers in college admissions and help them navigate its complexities in order to find a “best fit” college that meets a student’s unique set of academic, social, financial, and career needs.

“IECA members are ethical, compassionate professionals who dedicate their careers to advising students and families on their individual paths to success” said IECA CEO Mark Sklarow. “Our members focus on the unique student’s needs to help them have a successful experience wherever they choose to attend college.”

IECA members believe there are many great postsecondary options for every student, and no student should be made to feel that they must become something they are not to get accepted. Being and presenting one’s authentic self and demonstrating one’s own talents and abilities is a way of ensuring the right college fit. This is central to what an ethical independent educational consultant does.

IECA members offer an unequalled level of expertise, competence, and professionalism. Potential IECA members go through an extensive application process. They must have a master’s degree (or equivalent), at least three years of admissions counseling experience, experience working with scores of students, and have visited 50 campuses before they can be considered for professional membership. In addition, all members must agree to abide by IECA’s Principles of Good Practice and submit their marketing materials for review to ensure they accurately reflect the independent educational consultant’s role.

IECA members sign an annual pledge that governs their interactions with colleges, students, and parents. They agree to avoid any action that distorts or misrepresents a student’s record or interferes with a university’s ability to accurately evaluate a student. Because IECA consultants are committed to the highest ethical standards of practice, families find that IECA members have the student’s best interest as their sole focus.

We Believe

With a new docudrama on the Varsity Blues Scandal coming out this month on Netflix, as well as potential legislation impacting independent educational consultants (IECs) in several states, the IECA Board recognizes that the general public may not understand what IECA is and what guides our actions. These “We Believe” statements are meant to complement our mission and values and demonstrate IEC’s ongoing commitment to all young people.

1) We believe all students should have access to individualized educational guidance that will help them achieve their goals.

2) We believe independent educational consultants should act respectfully, honestly, compassionately, ethically, and professionally with every student.

3) We believe in the potential of all students regardless of cultural, religious, racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, unique needs, or learning differences.

4) We believe that education should be available and affordable to all families.

5) We believe independent educational consultants are uniquely equipped to guide and support students toward their personal, academic, social, and professional goals.

6) We believe in the power of education to widen opportunities for everyone which will ultimately improve society for all.

 

IECA Grants Inaugural Making a Difference Awards to Seven Independent Educational Consultants

Recipients Have Gone Above and Beyond to Support Their Fellow Members During This Tumultuous Year

IECA has recognized seven independent educational consultants (IECs) across the U.S. with its inaugural Making a Difference Awards in recognition of their unprompted and cooperative efforts that have made a difference in the work of its 2,300 members during this tumultuous year.

Award recipients include Katherine Andersen of Dana Point, CA; Stacey Cunitz of Philadelphia, PA; Eric Endlich of Needham, MA; Heidi Molbak of New Orleans, LA; Sydney Montgomery of Clarksburg, MD; Holly Ramsey of Naperville, IL; and David Stoeckel of Laguna Hills, CA. They were selected from the general membership and are not currently serving in formal leadership roles in IECA.

The specific efforts of the awardees include:

  • Katherine Andersen and David Stoeckel: Co-creating an IECs Advising College Bound Student Athletes Affinity Group and sharing information about NCAA and NAIA rules changes and news, especially those due to the pandemic
  • Stacey Cunitz: Being the “voice of reason” in tough conversations on equity, privilege, and other discussion topics on the IECA Member Network listserv
  • Eric Endlich: Sharing resources particular to the learning differences/neurodiversity differences (LD/ND) student population
  • Heidi Molbak: Creating a crowdsourcing document to track the opening status and operational changes of boarding schools across the U.S. due to COVID-19, and keeping it up-to-date and available to IECA members through fall 2020
  • Sydney Montgomery: Sharing resources on antiracism, content marketing, and other topics and participating as an active member of the Black IECs Affinity Group and Graduate School Committee
  • Holly Ramsey: Establishing a Homeschooling Affinity Group to provide ongoing discussion and support for IECA members interested in this specialized topic

The Making a Difference Awards were presented by Kristina Dooley, IECA board president, during the organization’s virtual Fall Conference (November 16-20, 2020), which was attended by more than 650 independent educational consultants and 400 school, program and college representatives.

“Our seven awardees have stepped up to support their colleagues by sharing resources, information, and ideas that have been invaluable to their IEC practices, especially considering how rapidly the pandemic has impacted the school, college, and therapeutic landscape,” said IECA CEO Mark Sklarow. “Their efforts speak to the importance of community within IECA.”

Katherine Andersen
Stacey Cunitz
Eric Endlich
Heidi Molbak
Sydney Montgomery
David Stoeckel

Post-Election Update: What to Expect from the New Biden Administration

By IECAs Lobbyists/Government Relations Team of Brian Finch and Craig Saperstein, Pillsbury Law and Public Policy; and the IECA Government Relations Committee

With the November 2020 general election nearly concluded, the Biden-Harris transition team is beginning its initial tasks of identifying individuals for key agency positions, and setting the groundwork to implement the new Administration’s major policy initiatives. The Biden Transition Team has begun formal coordination with current agency officials, and now has access to direct government funding for the transition. Given President-elect Joe Biden’s campaign promises and stated policy goals, there may be substantive developments in the higher education space within the first few months of the Biden presidency of which independent educational consultants should be aware.

Top Biden Policy Goals

Whether by executive order or through legislation, President-elect Biden has already indicated that he hopes to address student debt within the first 100 days of his presidency. Although no specifics have been revealed by the Biden team, potential relief may include a specific amount of debt forgiveness for undergraduate loans (rumored to be ranging anywhere from $10,000 to $50,000, with income-based caps), an extension of the COVID-19 forbearance period, and reduced federal interest rates on future federal loans.

Another priority for the Biden Administration will be reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA), which establishes federal student aid programs and governs most federal money going to colleges and universities in the United States. The HEA is designed to be reauthorized and updated every 5 years. However, the most recent update has not occurred since 2008. House Democrats introduced a bill, known as the College Affordability Act, to reauthorize the HEA in the current session of Congress, but action on HEA reauthorization is not likely to occur until the next session of Congress.

Beyond these initial objectives, the Biden team made education reform a key priority throughout the presidential campaign. Specific to higher education, the Biden campaign promised to invest in educational pathways programs in high schools, including investing in school vocational training programs, building partnerships between high schools, community colleges and employers to allow students programs to earn industry credentials while in high school. The Biden team has also promised to allow Pell grants to be used for dual enrollment programs, allowing high school students to take classes at community colleges for college credit.

Stakeholder groups have also been using this transition period to identify specific Trump Administration directives that the incoming Biden Administration should address. This week, the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) and the American Council on Education (ACE) both sent their policy priorities and recommendations to the Biden transition team. Their recommendations include reversing Trump Administration limits on H-1B visas that have limited international student enrollment in colleges, ending the Trump executive order limiting diversity and critical race theory trainings, and ending certain “unnecessarily adversarial” investigations by Department of Education into admissions practices. While the Biden team has not responded to these requests, these two influential higher education lobbying organizations and may help shape the initial Biden Administration policy goals.

Department of Education

Recently, the Biden-Harris transition team named its Agency Review Team for the Department of Education. The Review Team is led by Linda Darling-Hammond of the Learning Policy Institute, who previously served in the same role in 2008 for the Obama-Biden transition. Other Review Team members include the head of the Institute for College Access and Success, the postsecondary education leader at the Center for American Progress, a senior administrator at Howard University, the policy director for the Alliance for Excellent Education and numerous stakeholders from the primary and secondary education worlds. These volunteers are responsible for reviewing and understanding the operations of the Department of Education, coordinating the transition of power, and preparing President-elect Biden, Vice President-elect Harris and incoming Administration leaders to implement key policy priorities.

As part of the COVID-19 relief measures, federal student loan payments had been suspended through the end of 2020. The Biden – Harris administration had signaled a desire to extend student loan relief in some way. Recently the Trump administration announced that student loan relief for 41 million Americans who have benefited from a freeze on monthly payments will now have this relief extended to January 31, 2021.

While President-elect Biden has started naming his picks for top Administration positions, he has not yet indicated his choice for Secretary of Education. While campaigning in 2019, Biden promised to pick a teacher for the position, but left it unclear whether this only meant a K-12 teacher, or whether he would also consider a post-secondary educator. Potential rumored candidates for the position include Randi Weingarten, the president of the American Federation of Teachers; Lily Eskelsen García, the former president of the National Education Association; Baltimore City Schools CEO Sonja Santelises; Chicago Public Schools CEO Janice Jackson; and Philadelphia superintendent William Hite.

Regardless of who is ultimately named as Secretary of Education, the largest priorities will remain the same: increasing federal funding for schools to address the COVID-19 impacts, restoring Obama Administration civil rights guidance in schools, rolling back many of the Trump Administration and Secretary DeVos positions and directives and restoring funding cut over the past 4 years.

Potential Washington Gridlock

Despite the many Biden team objectives and promises, the viability of many higher education reform proposals will largely depend on the outcome of the January 5th Senate runoff elections in Georgia. The results of these two races will determine political control of the Senate. Victories by the Democratic candidates, Reverend Raphael Warnock and Jon Ossoff, would give Democrats 50 seats in the Senate, along with the tiebreaking vote by Vice President Harris. If Republicans are able to win either seat, they will maintain control in the Senate. A divided Congress, with a Republican-controlled Senate and a Democratic-controlled House of Representatives, would be far less likely to enact any sweeping changes to federal higher education policies than if Democrats have unified control of Congress and the Presidency. While some of Biden’s policy objectives can be accomplished by executive order, and through Department of Education initiatives, control of the Senate will be critical to the success of the Biden Administration’s legislative goals.  Without such control, there is a distinct possibility that Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) will not even permit a vote on legislation he or the majority of the Senate Republican Caucus opposes.  Democratic control of the Senate will permit the party to set the committee and floor agenda, though even having a majority is not a panacea; bipartisan support for higher education reform legislation will likely be necessary regardless of which party controls the Senate, given that Senate rules dictate that a 60-vote majority is needed to pass the vast majority of legislation.